Using Reclaimed Hardwood Flooring In Home Construction

How to Install Engineered Hardwood Flooring Over Concrete Substrate

When is engineered hardwood a better solution?

What do you tell your customers who have a concrete subfloor and want to install hardwood? We recommend an engineered hardwood for several important reasons. One, it’s much less sensitive to changes in humidity compared to wood that can swell with moisture and temperature. Two, it can be installed at any grade level – including below grade. And three, it’s better than traditional plank for installing over in-floor heating systems.

However, while engineered hardwood flooring offers increased durability, that doesn’t mean it can be used anywhere. Installations in wet environments are one example where numerous other types of flooring options are much more suitable.

What are the first steps before installation?

Your very first step before installing engineered hardwood floors over concrete is to let the boards acclimate to the room where they’re going to be installed. Check the manufacturer’s recommendations, but in most cases it’s a minimum of three days with no maximum.

Next, check the boards for warpage or defects, and then remove any bad ones. If you skip this important step, you could face problems later if you need to replace even a single board.

Why is moisture so critical to surface preparation?

Engineered hardwood is sturdier than traditional plank – but surface preparation still matters. For any flooring installation over concrete, you should anticipate potential problems with moisture levels.

Like any wood product, engineered hardwood expands and contracts because of changes in moisture. For that reason, the adhesive you choose depends on the environment and the conditions during installation. You need to be aware of any concrete substrate that has known moisture problems, and remember that new slabs will be high in moisture.

How should you install the floor?

After inspecting your boards and removing any defective ones, plan on following a running bond pattern of the grain. This is the most popular way to install engineered hardwood flooring because it’s stronger and more aesthetically pleasing.

Remember to leave expansion gaps between the flooring and wall. Consult the manufacturer’s recommendations to see how wide the expansion gap needs to be. Installing engineered hardwood flooring over concrete too tight against a stationary object will not allow room for normal expansion, and may cause a failure.

Consult the product data sheet for instructions regarding specific trowel requirements. In general, use a notched trowel to spread the adhesive. Pass the trowel through the glue at a 45-degree angle and install hardwood flooring immediately after the adhesive is spread.

Lay the flooring into the adhesive with the tongue side of the board facing the center of the room. The hardwood may slip and move at first, so be sure to secure one row entirely before moving on to other rows. The initial row will limit the movement of subsequent rows. You may have to temporarily tape edges of adjacent planks together with painter’s tape until installation is complete. Bowed boards or boards over low spots should be weighted down while the adhesive cures.

Periodically lift a piece of hardwood to make sure you’re achieving a 90 percent adhesive transfer. If the board doesn’t appear to have this level of coverage, remove the dried adhesive and apply more.


How to Deep Clean Hardwood Floors

  1. To deep clean your hardwood floors, start by vacuuming or sweeping. Removing all the loose dirt and debris will ensure that you can move onto the next steps without moving around the dirt and scratching the floors. Be sure to move furniture and rugs to clean the surface of all of your floors. Also, for wood floors with deep character knots, try using the wand attachment to get loose dirt out of the knots and crevices.
  2. Once you’ve removed the loose dirt from your hardwood floors, you can move on to the next step. You should always check with your manufacturer for floor cleaning solutions or cleaning products that are recommended for your floors before using them. Using a solution that is not recommended can damage the finish on the floors, which can be irreversible.
  3. Once you have found a cleaning solution, follow the manufacturer’s guidelines if it needs to be diluted. Also, check to see how much product is recommended for use on your floors. It’s always a good idea to test your cleaner on floors in a closet or somewhere that’s not noticeable, just in case it causes any discoloration, bubbling, or warping.
  4. Once you’ve tested your floor cleaner, you can start at the back of the room with your mop. Work in the direction of the hardwood grain, and don’t add too much cleaning product, as you want the floors to dry quickly. When you’ve finished a room, move on to the next room. Keep working until you’ve finished cleaning the hardwoods, and allow them to dry. Then, enjoy how beautiful they look!


How to Keep Hardwood Floors Clean

One of the easiest things you can do to keep your hardwood floors clean is to remove your shoes when entering and exiting your home. Rocks, gravel, and sand, among other materials, can easily get stuck in your shoes and be tracked around your home. Removing your shoes will help you and your family ensure that there is less of a mess.

With hard-surface flooring, one addition that adds not only warmth and comfort but also protection for your floors is an area rug. Area rugs will keep your hardwood floors from becoming faded, worn, and scratched, and they can be installed in many areas. Living rooms, bedrooms, and hallways are just a few areas where area rugs can change the look and feel of the space, but also protect your wood floors from the wear and tear of daily life.

If you have pets, another thing you can do is wipe their paws when they come inside. Whether it’s raining and their paws are full of water and dirt, or they seem to collect all kinds of mud, using a towel to wipe down your pet’s paws will help you create a home that stays clean.

Spills and accidents are common in any household. From pets to kids and even adults, there’s no telling when water will spill on your floors. To ensure that your hardwood floors stay in good condition, always wipe up spills as soon as they happen. Standing water can damage wood quickly and should not be left to dry.


Solid wood flooring: what should I look for?

Engineered wood floors are often quite similar in appearance. It’s worth choosing one with a click-lock mechanism, rather than tongue-and-groove boards, which are harder to fit. It’s worth seeing how well the planks fit together on in-store display panels. Look at the quality of the finish and the size of any gaps between the planks. Wood is a natural material and the planks will vary a little in colour, but some more than others, so think about whether you want a uniform look or a set of planks with a range of light and heavy grains.


Engineered Flooring

Engineered flooring is a type of layered “timber floor” with an upper layer of hardwood timber with several pieces of plywood. Its the upper layer of hardwood timber is prefinished and bonded to the subsequent plywood layers.

Engineered floors combine the benefits of real timber floors with the versatility of a floating floorboard design – making it suitable to be installed in apartments.


  • Real timber flooring look and feel
  • Greater stability compared to solid timber floors
  • Suitable for apartments and unit blocks
  • Simpler to install than solid timber floors


  • May be expensive (some engineered floors are almost the price of solid timber floors)
  • There is only a thin layer of real timber, making it difficult to sand & polish.
  • Timber floors tend to be soft, so the thin upper timber layer may be susceptible to wear and tear.

Tips On How To Choose A Wedding Photographer

Things All Wedding Photographers Should Know

Being a part of a wedding can be a magical experience in itself but consider capturing all the magic that is about to define someone else’s life. Now that is a challenge.

Wedding photography can be a tough profession to take up. With challenges from getting started to producing pictures that the clients like, a lot of work goes into running a wedding photography business.

Let’s get down to what issues you may have to face if you start taking up wedding photography as a profession.

Getting Hired Is The Hard Part:

The first step to being successful in any field is finally getting a paying project. A strong portfolio makes it easier to convince someone that you have enough expertise to cover their wedding. You should have some idea of your costs but you need to convince someone else that your costs are worth your output. Once you have someone interested and willing to pay, you need to remember the next point so that you don’t ruin your opportunity.

You Are Your Brand:

And you have to create it from scratch. You know how you want it to look; you know what brand image you want in the market. So you are the best bet to handle every aspect of it. From sales manager to CEO, it’s mostly you. You are the one who will look out for production costs and give out advertisements. You get your business up and running and learn how to manage everything that goes in. You have to show your customer your value as a wedding photographer. The good news is you won’t have to do it all the time due to the fact that…

Weddings Are Seasonal:

Wedding photography is not a year-long business. There will be dry months where you’ll have to survive from your earnings acquired in the last season. To overcome this difficulty, you need to make sure you make enough to get you through the rainy months or find an alternative for this part of the year to be able to keep paying those bills. You better be sure to nail the jobs when you get them because…

There Won’t Be Any Retakes:

Literally speaking, you only get one shot. That first kiss, that first dance, it won’t happen again. You need to be skilled and alert enough to be able to capture all these special moments that the bride and groom want to look at on their return from their honeymoon. If you miss a shot, you won’t be excused because of the bad lighting or the overzealous crowd. You need to figure it out yourself. Make sure everything is set beforehand so you won’t have to miss out on capturing that bouquet mid-air or that aforementioned first kiss.

Give What’s Asked For…But Be Original:

A lot of skill goes into photography and so does creativity. Couples don’t want their pictures to be clichéd. They hired you for this exact reason – so that you could give them memories in a way that makes their friends jealous. This would only result in you being hired by their friends. And then the friends’ friends. And so on. Listen to what the clients want and then incorporate your experience and your finesse in giving them a refined version of their dream wedding album.


How do I find a wedding photographer?

First things first: where do you even start your search for the perfect wedding photographer? One obvious potential path is to ask friends, family, or co-workers to see if they have any recommendations. However, one downside to that plan is that you may feel obligated to take their suggestion even if it doesn’t seem like a good fit.

Another option is to search the Internet, typically running a “near me” search in Google. This can give you a jumping-off point and provide you a few options. However to get a better feel for a photographer’s work and what their customers say it’s better to go to a dedicated photographer site, like From there, you can consider reviews, compare portfolios, and view availability to help whittle down you list of potential hires.


What should I look for in a wedding photographer?

Commonly, exploring a photographer’s portfolio will be your first step in determining if they’re right for your wedding. Looking through past events they’ve captured will give you a sense of their style as well as any potential strengths and weaknesses. For example, if you see that a photographer’s portfolio is mostly made up of outdoor shots and your venue is indoors, you might consider asking to see comparable images or look for a photographer with an indoor specialty.

After you’ve found a photographer whose work you like, the next step is to ensure that their personality and vision for your event match your own. Like any professional, certain photographers may have particular ways they like to go about things. Unfortunately, this may sometimes clash with what you had planned. In some cases these differences can be resolved but, when in doubt, it’s better to go with a photographer who’s fully on board with your vision than to compromise on your big day and regret it later.

Finally, another major consideration to make when hiring a photographer involves money — as in how much will their services cost you? Depending on how strict your budget is, you may even want to move this question higher up your list so that you don’t fall in love with a photographer’s work only to learn that they’re out of your price range. Although talking about money can be awkward at times, keep in mind that these photographers are professionals. Therefore, there’s nothing wrong with inquiring about their rates and seeing what works and doesn’t for your budget.


Things you should know before hiring professional photographer

You know when they say that a picture speaks a thousand words? They were not wrong. What this usually means is that a single picture has the capacity to explain complexities better than what a thousand words could do. Let’s face it we would rather look at a picture than read a  thousand words describing it. A good photograph has embedded in it a lot of emotions and quite frankly everything you would want to remember and this is not possible without the right photographer.

So here are some things to consider when choosing a photographer for your project.

Project Description

So first of all, you should consider what project you need your photographer to cover. If it’s a wedding, you should know that it is a full day’s work and this means your wedding photographer will need help. If it’s a family photoshoot then you’ll most likely want to do it outside which means your photographer should have some knowledge of the city and interesting locations and landmarks. The point is that your project is the major determinant of who your photographer will be. If you are in the e-commerce space, you have your online store or you are selling on Amazon, Walmart or Esty, you’d have to take into consideration what exactly you need from the shoot, your product type and if your photographer knows a thing or two about such products. A fashion show on the other hand, should have a photographer than can capture moving objects or in this case persons. Referrals are good but sometimes may not really be what you want. So the project at hand should come to play when looking for the best photographer out there.


One thing to understand is that every photographer has some level of expertise in one field or the other. It could be as a wedding photographer or a still life photographer or even as a macro photographer. What this naturally means is that they work well under certain lighting. It could be with natural lights or artificial but either way, everyone of them has an aspect of photography that irks them more than the other and this is something you should figure out because you really don’t want to get a still life photographer to cover one of the most important moments of your life such as a wedding. So pick one that has really prove himself in certain photography field or style.

Check out their portfolio

Every photographer has a portfolio of pictures they have taken in the past and by all means you should take a look at this. This will show you what they are best at. Looking at their portfolio will help you decide if they are the best choice for your project or not. It will also help you decipher their photography style. Whether it is formal or traditional or artistic. The portfolio will help you see clearly the photographer’s eye and what he is best at creating. From looking at all these, you clearly will not choose a wedding photographer to cover anything other than weddings.


Personal Convictions

This will usually come to play after you have met the photographer in person. What you need to understand is the fact that there is someone for everyone. So if you are the conservative type, there’s a photographer to meet your needs and same goes for someone else whose theme is Gothic. Meeting the photographer will help you decide if you would like this person to photograph your event or wedding or party. A lot of times it’s easy to book online and subsequently dislike your photographer when you get to meet him. It is advised to set up interviews and share what you have in mind when it comes to photographing your event. This will give him an understanding of what you like and most importantly it will help you realize if you like him enough to let him give you instructions. If you two cannot get along when you meet, you most likely won’t get along on your event or when running the photo session.

Knowledge Base

This may be a bit difficult seeing that clients have no idea of what a photographer should know. This can be remedied by looking at his page. What are the things he blogs about? and what are his reviews? Everyone doing something commercially has people reviewing their work. Read the bad and good reviews and this will help you understand if he knows exactly what he’s doing. Photography is an aspect that does not have a lot of regulation and you’d need to be sure before handing out a cheque. It’s much better to go for someone with a lot of experience in this field. It would be of great help to know if he teaches other people.

The Importance Of New Electric Circuits Breakers

How to Wire an Electrical Circuit Breaker Panel

This overview describes how a professional electrician connects a residential electrical circuit breaker panel to the main service wires coming into the home, and to the individual branch circuits in your home. This is not a DIY project for most homeowners. Connecting a breaker panel is very dangerous work if you are not an expert, and in most communities, the building codes may not even allow you to do this kind of major electrical work yourself. It requires coordination with the electrical utility company.

example assumes that the electrical panel is being installed on the wall of a utility area near the point where the main feeder wires come into the home, and that all branch circuit cables and conduit runs are already installed. In a new home construction or a major rewiring project, the last step will be connecting all the wires to the circuit breaker box, as described here.

Check Feeder Wires for Power

The electrician first makes sure the electricity to the feeder wires has been shut off by the power utility company. They will check the feeder wires with a voltage tester to ensure that this is the case.

Open Knockouts in Box

The electrician then opens metal knockouts for the main service conduit as well as for each branch circuit that will enter the breaker box. Yet another knockout may need to be opened for the main grounding wire. The knockouts are the round metal discs visible in the top, bottom, sides, and back of the box, of various sizes to match different sized conduits that may need to connect to the box. The electrician uses a chisel or old screwdriver to open the knockouts. They may do all of these at once, or start with only the knockout for the main service conduit, then open the knockouts for the branch circuits later, as individual circuit wires are run.

Mount the Circuit Breaker Panel

Next, the electrician positions the circuit breaker panel, levels it, and anchors it to the wall with screws or anchors driven through the back of the panel and into the wall. If the holes don’t align with studs behind the panel, they may drill additional drill holes in the back of the panel to accommodate the installation or mount a piece of plywood to accommodate the panel.


Electrical Circuit Requirements for Kitchens

A kitchen uses more electricity than any other room in the home, and the National Electrical Code stipulates that it should be amply served by multiple circuits. In a kitchen that uses electrical cooking appliances, this can mean it needs as many as seven or eight circuits. Compare this to the requirements for a bedroom or other living area, where a single general-purpose lighting circuit can serve all the light fixtures and plug-in outlets.

At one time, most kitchen appliances were plugged into ordinary general outlet circuits, but as kitchen appliances have become larger and larger over the years, it’s now standard—and required by Building Code—for each of these appliances to have a dedicated appliance circuit that serves nothing else. In addition, kitchens require small appliance circuits and at least one lighting circuit.

Be aware that not all local Building Codes have the same requirements. While the NEC (National Electrical Code) serves as the basis for most local codes, individual communities can, and often do, set their own standards. Always check with your local code authorities on requirements for your community.

Kitchen Wiring in Older Homes

In older homes that have not had their wiring systems updated, it is very common for kitchen wiring to be undersized for the electrical demands of a modern kitchen. It is not uncommon, for example, for a kitchen to have only two or three circuits, and for basic appliances such as the refrigerator, dishwasher, garbage disposal to be powered by the same general-purpose circuit that powers the light fixtures and countertop receptacles

Generally speaking, older wiring systems are allowed to remain in place (“grandfathered in”) when a kitchen undergoes modest remodeling efforts, such as simple replacement of appliances, flooring, and countertops. However, during major remodeling projects that require building permits, you may be required to bring your kitchen fully “up to code,” and this very likely will require adding several electrical circuits.


What to Do When Your Circuit Breaker Keeps Tripping

Q: Every few hours—sometimes minutes!—my living room and one side of my kitchen lose electrical power. Lamps won’t come on; I can’t make toast or watch television. I’ll check the breaker panel and, sure enough, a circuit breaker has tripped…again. I flip it back on and all is well until it happens again! I’m concerned about the wiring in my home. Should I call an electrician, or is there a simple DIY fix I can try first?

A: While it’s frustrating to have to keep switching a tripped breaker back on, keep in mind that a circuit breaker is an important safety mechanism. Designed to shut off the electrical current when something goes wrong, it’s one of the best ways of protecting your home from an electrical fire. You may ultimately have to call an electrician to deal with whatever causes your circuit breaker tripping—electrical current isn’t something to mess with—but a little sleuthing will help you see if it’s something easily remedied.

First, let’s review some basics to help you understand what might be happening. Electricity from your local utility company runs through a cable directly to your breaker panel (service panel). From there, the electricity flows through individual circuits (a circuit is a wiring loop that starts and ends at the breaker panel). Each breaker you see in the panel has an ON/OFF switch and controls a separate electrical circuit in your home. When a breaker trips, its switch automatically flips to the “OFF” position, and it must be manually turned back on in order for electricity to flow through the circuit again.

Test for circuit overload.

A circuit overloads when more electrical current is being drawn through the wires than they can handle, causing them to overheat and trip the circuit breaker. You mention that when the breaker trips, power goes out in your living room and part of your kitchen. This indicates that a single circuit is powering multiple outlets and switches, which is probably too much of a burden on the circuit. This type of wiring configuration is commonly seen in homes more than 40 years old, before we used a lot of electrical appliances and gadgets (big screen TVs, PCs, space heaters, and powerful kitchen appliances).

To test for circuit overload, the next time the breaker trips, go to the electrical panel and turn off all the switches in the affected area and unplug all appliances, lamps, and other devices. Flip the breaker back on and then turn on the switches and plug in/turn on devices one at a time. Wait a few minutes in between to see if the circuit will remain on. Each time you turn on a light or run an appliance, you’ll be drawing more electricity through the wires. If the breaker trips before you turn on all the appliances, try the experiment again, this time turning on the appliances in a different order. You may need to go through the process several times to get a good idea of how many appliances you can operate at one time before overloading the circuit.

Circuit overload is one of the most common reasons for circuit breakers tripping, and you can prevent it from happening by running fewer appliances at the same time on that circuit. The best long-term solution, however, is to have an electrician update your home’s wiring to add additional circuits. In your situation, having a separate circuit to handle the part of the kitchen that’s now on your living room circuit would allow you to use your kitchen appliances (mixer, bread machine, toaster) without fear of overloading the living room circuit.


New Electrical Circuits

Just because you have sufficient power for your home now is no guarantee that it is going to accommodate any additional demands that you place upon it. While many home-owners are under the impression that just adding circuits to the breaker box will handle any additional demands, this isn’t always the case.

Most homes are outfitted with an electrical panel that is suited to its electrical requirements, with a little room for increased electricity. Adding a circuit or two might be just fine to accommodate your new electrical needs, but it’s quite easy to exceed the safe threshold if you’re not careful.

When do you need to look into adding circuits or updating your electrical panel?

Any time you add an appliance to your home, you are increasing the demand on the electrical system. Consult with a licensed electrician before hooking up a major appliance to determine if your system is ready for the added load.

Whenever you set up a big holiday light display, this is one of the leading causes for needing upgraded circuits. Hot tubs draw a lot of electricity and are almost always a time for installing new circuits and potentially upgrading your electrical panel.

If adding a new room to your house or other additional square footage is added, this will need to be accommodated by adding one or more new circuits to the system. Depending on the size and electrical requirements of your addition, the increase in amperage could require updating the electric panel as the only viable option.


How Much Does It Cost to Hire an Electrician?

Electricity is an important and integral part of every home. And if you are updating any part of the electrical wiring, lighting, or panels in your home, you need to make sure that it is done safely and correctly. That means hiring an electrician to do the work. They can handle many project types from simple outlet installations to completely rewiring your home.

Electricians charge between $40 and $100 per hour for most jobs. Low-cost projects, such as installing an outlet, start at around $85, whereas high-cost projects like upgrading a circuit panel can cost as much as $11,000. The national average cost for hiring an electrician is between $300 and $9,000, with most people paying around $399 for a new ceiling fan installation.

Electrician Cost Per Hour

Electricians typically charge between $40 and $100 an hour, which is influenced by where you live and the electrician’s license grade. There are three grades – Apprentice, Journeyman, and Master. To achieve each grade, electricians must meet specific testing requirements

Apprentice Electrician

To receive an Apprentice license, the electrician needs to complete hundreds of hours of classroom work, as well as 8,000 hours of supervised on-the-job experience. Apprentices can complete many basic electrical tasks, such as installing outlets and light fixtures, and they charge an average rate of $40 to $50 an hour.

Journeyman Electrician

A Journeyman electrician has completed their apprenticeship and taken and passed the Journeyman electrician exam. They are qualified to take on more complex projects in your home, such as wiring and installing an electrical panel or car charging station. They charge $50 to $70 an hour on average.

National Commercial Electrical Maintenance Code

Commercial electrical maintenance tasks this Spring

Spring is traditionally the time for cleaning and starting anew, and that’s why this is the perfect time of year to consider your electrical maintenance tasks. But what should you include on your checklist? And what are the advantages of tackling your electrical maintenance work?

What are some of the most important commercial electrical maintenance tasks this Spring?

After the winter months, where weather can cause damage, and wear and tear can be more pronounced by use, electrical maintenance can be essential for keeping your property safe and sound, and maintaining your legal obligations to Electrical Safety.

You should:

Book a PAT test- at this time of year, there are generally more electricians available than during autumn or winter months when demand is highest. This means it can be a good idea to book a PAT test for any new electrical appliances, and be prepared and legally covered, for the rest of the year.

Carry out electrical testing- you should consider hiring an electrical team to carry out any electrical testing during this time of the year. This usually involves testing emergency lighting systems, and backup power supplies and generators.

Carry out independent maintenance- you can also carry out your own maintenance at this time of year too. You should consider checking all light bulbs and fixtures and making any appropriate changes, as well as checking any damage or wear and tear to cables, cords and electrical items.


Electrical Services

skilled staff are dedicated to not only excellent customer service, but prompt professional attention to your business and home electrical needs. We repair and maintain electric hot water systems, stoves and CCTV systems and run scheduled maintenance programs, plus all the day-to-day jobs of installing lights and power points.

If you are building or renovating, talk to us about lighting design and your lighting signs. We will make sure your lighting is functional, attractive and efficient. It goes without saying, our industrial, residential and commercial electricians are experts at lighting installation, too. And when it comes to PLC wiring and installation, we have the experience and skill to not just do the job, but do it well.

reliable industrial electricians

Industrial electrical projects require a team of specialists that complete their work to relevant industry standards and guidelines to ensure maximum safety.

Residential electrical services

Whether you’re looking to save money on your power bills by becoming more energy efficient, are renovating your home or need urgent electrical work,

Commercial electricians for large-scale projects

From lighting systems to electrical design, contact Salt Electricians. And we are your electricians for making home or office energy efficient.



This course is designed to provide basic electrical skills to those who need to perform first-line electrical maintenance tasks including the safe isolation, replacement and testing of a range of common electrical devices (motors, sensors, heating elements, solenoids, etc.) in a safe and effective manner. Importantly, the format of the course is specifically designed so that, when combined with suitable on-site consolidation of training, it will assist the maintenance manager in meeting the legal requirements for employee competence in electrical work.


No prior electrical knowledge is assumed. The structure and content of the course is aimed at those who currently fulfil a maintenance role, for example mechanical fitters. Many companies use this course to help introduce flexibility to their workforce, as part of a multiskilling programme.

Candidates with previous electrical experience (for example instrument engineers, electronics engineers, or those that have gained the necessary knowledge of electrical principles from elsewhere can attend a shortened version of this course. An eligibility assessment is available on request.


The course has an extensive hands-on practical approach, placing emphasis on safe working practice and on the development of useful, practical skills. Comprehensive course notes are provided.


On completion of the course, participants will be able to

practice safe working methods on electrical systems

understand the relevant regulative requirements

demonstrate an understanding of electrical principles and units

identify a wide range of electrical equipment & devices and understand their principles of operation / connections

understand the principles of earthing / protection and associated protective devices

demonstrate an understanding of electrical systems, switchgear and circuit types

diagnose basic faults and recognise their associated symptoms

work with a range of cable types and carry out correct terminations and connections

recognise the most common industrial motor types and understand their operation, connections and maintenance requirements

use electrical test equipment effectively and carry out testing of a range of motors, solenoids, cables, etc. (using insulation, continuity, tong testers, etc.)

identify motor and power circuit faults

use circuit diagrams as an aid to maintenance

access electrical enclosures and replace fuses, reset overloads etc

perform electrical isolation, testing for dead, etc on a wide range of devices and circuits safely.




It is unlikely that a candidate coming to this apprenticeship without previous relevant experience would complete the apprenticeship in less than 42 months, and a typical completion time is likely to be 48 months. This may reduce if an apprentice is part-qualified or has relevant experience on entry

Typical job titles:

Installation electrician, Maintenance electrician and Electrician

Occupational profile

Electricians install, maintain and repair electrical systems in industrial, commercial and domestic environments. Electricians might work in both indoor and outdoor settings. Electrical equipment and systems may include switchboards, motors, cables, fuses, thermal relays, fault current protection switches, heating, lighting, air conditioning and metering equipment as well as crime and fire alarm systems and renewable energy technologies. They are able to work on their own proficiently and work without immediate supervision in the most efficient and economical manner.

They may contribute to the design of electrical systems. They are able to set out jobs from drawings and specifications and requisition the necessary installation materials. Electrical safety is an important area of Electricians’ work. On completion of their work the electrical systems must be safe to use. They must adhere to safe working practices without endangering themselves or others

Entry requirements

Individual employers will identify any relevant entry requirements in terms of previous qualifications, trainability tests, or other criteria. Most candidates will have English and mathematics at level 2 on entry.

Knowledge and Skills

Electricians will use engineering knowledge and understanding to apply their technical and practical skills. They will contribute to the design, development, manufacture, construction, commissioning, operation or maintenance of products, equipment, processes, systems or services. Electricians must:

Understand and apply the principles, practices and legislation for the termination and connection of conductors, cables and cords in electrical systems

Understand and apply the practices and procedures for the preparation and installation of wiring systems and electrotechnical equipment in buildings, structures and the environment

Understand and apply the principles, practices and legislation for the inspection, testing, commissioning and certification of electrotechnical systems and equipment in buildings, structures and the environment

Understand and apply the principles, practices and legislation for diagnosing and correcting electrical faults in electrotechnical systems and equipment in buildings, structures and the environment

Understand and apply the electrical principles associated with the design, building, installation and maintenance of electrical equipment and systems

Oversee and organise the work environment.


Maintenance Electrician Resume Examples

Maintenance Electricians work in a variety of industries and make sure that electrical equipment is functioning properly. Typical duties listed on a Maintenance Electrician resume include inspecting machines, diagnosing technical issues, performing repairs on site or in repair centers, making sure safety guidelines are being followed, and reporting to supervisors

Based on our most successful resume examples, Maintenance Electricians should demonstrate technical skills, troubleshooting abilities, attention to details, proactivity, stamina, and teamwork. Employers select candidates holding an Associate’s Degree in electrical maintenance.

Industrial Maintenance Electrician

Extensive experience as industrial electrician in reputed steel organization. Install new or upgrade existing systems and equipment at major manufacturing plants to achieve energy conservation goals system. Detailed knowledge of electrical systems including preparation, added extras and modifications on minor circuits. Excellent in computer knowledge and English communication.

Installed, maintained, repaired and tested equipment for plant utilization of electric energy.

Recommended organization on whether continuous function of equipment could be risky,

Performed general electromechanical repairs on systems and equipment, ensuring adherence to code requirements.

Troubleshoot and install PLC’s.

Constructed different electrical equipment by using hand tools and power tools.

Maintenance Electrician

Modified and developed programs in Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) using RSLogix 5000/500/5, and PicPro software.

Troubleshot and repaired machines on-site and through ControlLogix 5000, SLC 500, PLC 5, Micrologix, CompactLogix, Siemens S-5, and Giddings & Lewis (G&L) PLC, UltraWare and AB DriveExecutive software.

Modified and programmed Human Machine Interfaces (HMI) using Factory Talk View and Panelbuilder32 software.

Updated and created electrical schematic drawings and ladder logic diagrams.

Assisted in upgrading and starting up various machines.

Industrial maintenance experience in 480V, AC/DC drives and motors, servo drives and motors, encoders, VFD, starters, safety relays, control relays, safety switches, proximity switches, photo eyes, conveyor systems, general mechanical, pneumatic and hydraulic valves.

Created work lists, scheduled and performed electrical predictive and preventive maintenance.

Installed necessary components to existing machinery for better performance.

Maintenance Electrician

Ran own van and worked independently as well as in teams as needed

Retrofitted commercial and industrial lighting systems of various sizes and styles

Installed new circuits and updated circuits ranging from 120V systems up to 480V systems

Troubleshot and installed various ballasts, lighting contactors, neon signs, etc. on live circuits

Performed preventative maintenance procedures in industrial, commercial and residential settings

Ran new circuits for various machines, lighting systems and anything else per customer work orders

Troubleshot, diagnosed and repaired neon signs or all different sizes and types

A Brief Overview Of Water Testing Filtration Systems

Drinking Water Testing

Environmental Education and Outreach – Drinking water testing and analysis services provided by National Testing Laboratories or certified/licensed professionals.  The residential drinking water testing program includes analysis for common water quality problems, microbiological contamination, and makes recommendations regarding the potential need for water treatment devices, such as: softeners, reverse osmosis units, distillation, neutralizers, chlorination systems, ultraviolet or UV systems. As part of the Water Research Center continuing efforts of environmental education on tapwater testing , we established an education program, testing program, guidance on a treatment program, and a self-monitoring program.

Quick Bacteria Test (Presence/Absence) – This is a quick test for the presence or absence of Coliform and E. Coli Bacteria in your drinking water. Coliform is an indicator bacteria that public water supplies are required to monitor. The presence of Coliform could indicate the presence of other infection disease causing organisms. If Coliform is present, then we look for E. Coli. which is a known pathogen

First Flush and Flush Lead – The dual lead test will test for the lead contect in the water and includes sample containers and testing for a “first draw” and a “flushed” sample when you are concern about ypur tapwater, city water or well water

Water Check 1 & 2- This testing package covers 22 heavy metals and minerals such as calcium, magnesium, iron, lead, arsenic, and mercury. Additionally, analyzes other inorganic compounds and physical characteristics including nitrate, nitrite, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, alkalinity, pH and hardness in your tapwater

Corrosion Check -An informational testing package that was developed for people who are experiencing signs of corrosion in their plumbing fixtures.  This test analyzes contaminants that can specifically affect corrosion.  This package can be used for well water and city water when you suspect corrosion, lead, copper in your tap water



Many countries, states, and municipalities have specific requirements concerning water quality. Water must be free from harmful contaminants, such as bacteria, heavy metals and pesticides, to protect the environment and ensure public safety.


We offer a comprehensive range of water analysis services to help you fulfill your regulatory requirements. Analyses include volatile organics, semi-volatile organics, pesticides, PCBs, herbicides, a variety of petroleum hydrocarbon analyses, metals, microbiology, and general chemistry methods, such as minerals, residue, anions, and nutrients. Each matrix has specific requirements and methods.

Testing services include:

Drinking water – segregated from other analyses to provide low-level reporting requirements; numerous large-scale lead analysis projects for municipalities and schools currently underway

Groundwater – leads the way in performing some of the largest and most complex groundwater investigations ever undertaken

Surface water – uses low-level methods to meet federal or local regulations

Wastewater – offering both pre- and post-treatment analysis to verify permit requirements for discharged waste

Storm water – monitoring industrial and agricultural runoff following significant rain events

Specialty testing – for explosives/energetics, dioxins/furans, PCB congeners, perfluorinated compounds (PFAS) and radiological analyses

Ballast water and grey water

With local expertise backed-up by global capabilities, we can help you comply with local laws and policies concerning water quality. Our advanced methods require the collection of smaller sample volumes, reducing the cost of field sampling and transportation, while still delivering superior results.


Biological Water Testing

Advances in science and technology have equipped the groundwater industry with more data than has ever been available at any point in recorded history. Rapid screening techniques used to quantify and profile the overall bacterial populations, as well as identification of the more prominent bacterial species within water, now allow for a comprehensive assessment of the biological conditions within a well.

This approach was used within a laboratory setting to examine the biological communities in thousands of samples from potable wells over several years. Data from those analyses was compiled to determine relationships, occurrences, and trends that developed with regard to deposit formation, corrosion potential, unsafe conditions, and other fouling mechanisms associated with bacterial influences.

Testing Approach for the Well Environment

Bacteria are found universally—including some of the most extreme environments on the planet—and are part of our everyday lives. They play important roles within the food, pharmaceutical, and bioremediation industries as well as within our own bodies. They exist in soils, air, and water.

The potable wells we rely upon as a source for safe water are no exception. Groundwater wells are dynamic systems which vary considerably in construction and operation, as well as a multitude of external influences from the aquifers and environments they interact with. These variables may result in a variety of conditions downhole that can stimulate extremely diverse and expansive microbial communities.

The water well industry has traditionally relied heavily upon the total coliform test, commonly referred to as a “Bac-T test,” to determine the biological presence within a well. This is due to the notoriety these methods have gained because of regulatory actions put in place by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.


Water Testing Laboratories

Element provides full testing capabilities for drinking water, ground and surface water, and wastewater testing provide the analytical results, and required accreditation for testing drinking water systems, site remediation, studies, routine monitoring, or individual projects.

Water testing is an essential element of public and environmental safety and a requirement bound by stringent regulatory conditions. By undertaking water analysis, you can minimize risk and the potentially damaging impact, not only on public health but also to the environment.

water analysis services

Employing a stringent quality system, our water testing laboratories offer complete solutions for potable water distribution to ensure the quality of water for public safety. We support wastewater facilities requiring regulatory approval by testing their water either in its raw form or after treatment to bring peace of mind that wastewater discharge meets the required guidelines and is not contributing to environmental contamination.

Agricultural waters are tested for livestock consumption safety, contamination, and also from herbicides or pesticides as well as irrigation suitability. water testing services extend to ground waters and surface waters. We test them for contamination, either as routine monitoring for landfills and up-stream, midstream, and downstream energy production. We also provide pro-active solutions that prevent the destructive influences of corrosion with our analysis of chemical parameters and contaminants from waters effect on your assets.

Working with Element

In a sea of regulations, Element’s experts are on hand to help you navigate the path to compliance, and discuss and develop tailored monitoring and water analysis programs that meet your precise needs. We actively assist in detailed analysis, provide sample containers, and provide guideline reporting.


Water Testing

More frequent testing should be considered if:

There is a change in the taste, odor, or appearance of the well water, or if a problem occurs such as a broken well cap, inundation by floodwaters, or a new contamination source

The well has a history of bacterial contamination

The septic system has recently malfunctioned

Family members or house guests have recurrent incidents of gastrointestinal illness

An infant is living in the home, or

To monitor the efficiency and performance of home water treatment equipment.

Check with your local health or environmental health department for recommendations regarding the type and frequency of testing specific to your location. For help in interpreting your water test results—and what might be a health risk or an aesthetic issue—ask the lab that conducted the test or your county health department.

Total coliform is the most commonly used indicator of bacterial contamination. The presence of coliform bacteria is an “indicator” of a well’s possible contamination from human or animal wastes. Total coliform are a broad category of bacteria, most of which pose no threat to humans. Some come from fecal matter; others naturally occur in soils, vegetation, insects, etc. The presence of coliform bacteria in well water can be a harbinger of worsening water quality. In some cases, more specific tests for fecal contamination, such as E.coli, may be used.

Common sources of nitrate to well water are fertilizers, septic systems, animal manure, and leaking sewer lines. Nitrate also occurs naturally from the breakdown of nitrogen compounds in soil and rocks. High levels of nitrate in well water present a health concern and can also indicate the presence of other contaminants, such as bacteria and pesticides. Drinking large amounts of water with nitrates is particularly threatening to infants (for example, when mixed in formula).

Typical additional tests are those for pH, hardness, iron, manganese, sulfides, and other water constituents that cause problems with plumbing, staining, water appearance, and odor. Changes in these constituents also may indicate changes in your well or local groundwater. Additional tests may be recommended if water appears cloudy or oily, if bacterial growth is visible on fixtures, or water treatment devices are not working as they should. Check with your water well contractor, state department of natural resources, or local health department for information on local water quality issues.

The Emerging Role Of Accounting

Limitations of Financial Accounting

Financial accounting permits alternative treatmentsAccounting is based on concepts and it follows ” generally accepted principles” but there exist more than one principle for the treatment of any one item. This permits alternative treatments with in the framework of generally accepted principles. For example, the closing stock of a business may be valued by anyone of the following methods: FIFO (First-in- First-out), LIFO (Last-in-First-out), Average Price, Standard Price etc., but the results are not comparable.

Financial accounting does not provide timely information

It is not a limitation when high powered software application like HiTech Financial Accenting are used to keep online and concurrent accounts where the balance sheet is made available almost instantaneously. However, manual accounting does have this shortcoming.

Financial accounting is designed to supply information in the form of statements (Balance Sheet and Profit and Loss Account) for a period normally one year. So the information is, at best, of historical interest and only ‘post-mortem’ analysis of the past can be conducted. The business requires timely information at frequent intervals to enable the management to plan and take corrective action. For example, if a business has budgeted that during the current year sales should be $ 12,00,000 then it requires information whether the sales in the first month of the year amounted to $ 10,00,000 or less or more?

Traditionally, financial accounting is not supposed to supply information at shorter interval less than one year. With the advent of computerized accounting now a software like HiTech Financial Accounting displays monthly profit and loss account and balance sheet to overcome this limitation. Financial accounting is influenced by personal judgments’Convention of objectivity’ is respected in accounting but to record certain events estimates have to be made which requires personal judgment. It is very difficult to expect accuracy in future estimates and objectivity suffers. For example, in order to determine the amount of depreciation to be charged every year for the use of fixed asset it is required estimation and the income disclosed by accounting is not authoritative but ‘approximation’.

Financial accounting ignores important non-monetary information

Financial accounting does not consider those transactions of non- monetary in nature. For example, extent of competition faced by the business, technical innovations possessed by the business, loyalty and efficiency of the employees; changes in the value of money etc. are the important matters in which management of the business is highly interested but accounting is not tailored to take note of such matters. Thus any user of financial information is, naturally, deprived of vital information which is of non-monetary character. In modern times a good accounting software with MIS and CRM can be most useful to overcome this limitation partially.


Major Limitations of Financial Accounting

Supplies Insufficient Information:

Financial accounting provides the information about the financial activities as a whole and not individual-wise, i.e., it does not record information relating to product-wise, department-wise etc.

Controlling Cost not Possible:

In financial accounting control of cost is not possible since the costs are known at the end of the financial year or a specified period of time whether the expense or cost has already been incurred, i.e., nothing can be done to control either the account of expense or the cost. In other words, if it is even found that a particular cost is more, it is not possible to control it.

But the same is possible only when the cost accounting system is being introduced.

Historic in Nature:

Since the financial accounting records all transactions relating to a particular period, it is rather historic in nature. In short, present financial information relating to a past period and not for the future although all financial decisions are taken on the basis of past financial data.

Recording Actual Cost:

The financial accounting records the actual cost only, the historical cost of the assets. The value of assets may be changed, but record only the cost of acquisitions of such assets. In other words, financial accounting does not record the price fluctuations or change in price level. As a result it does not present the correct information.



One of the biggest limitations of accounting is that it cannot measure things/events that do not have a monetary value. If a certain factor, no matter how important, cannot be expressed in money it finds no place in accounting. Some very important qualities like management, loyalty, reputation, etc find no place on the balance sheet or the income statement.

No Future Assesment

The financial statements show the financial position of the firm on the date of preparation. The users of the statement are more interested in the future of the company in the short term and long term. However, accounting does not make any such estimates.

And due to the dynamic nature of the business environment, a lot can change between such dates. Auditors sometimes do disclose the important events occurring after the balance sheet date to rectify these limitations of accounting.

Historical Costs

Accounting often uses historical costs to measure the values. This fails to take into consideration factors such as inflation, price changes, etc. This skews the relevance of such accounting records and information. This is one of the major limitations of accounting.

Accounting Policies

There is no global standard in accounting policies. In India, we follow the Accounting Standards. Americans follow the GAAP and then there are the international standards, namely the IFRS. And if a global company operates in more than one country, there may be confusion.

Not all accounting policies follow the same line of thinking, and conflicts may arise due to this. It has long been said that the whole world must agree on uniform accounting policies but this has not happened yet.


Time Value of Money

Under the accounting system, money value is treated constantly. But the value of money always changes due to inflation. Under existing accounting systems, accounts are maintained considering historical cost ignoring current changed value. As a result, the accounts maintained fail to exhibit the exact financial position of a business concern.

Recommendation of alternative methods

There exists an application of alternative methods in determining depreciation of assets and valuation of stock etc. Information regarding the activities of the business is expressed in a misleading way if an alternative method is used to achieve a particular object.

Importance of form over substance

At the time of preparing accounts for a particular period, the emphasis is laid on the form, table, etc. instead of giving importance to an exhibition of substantial information. As per Company Act, preparation of the balance sheet in the prescribed form is mandatory.

Although there are some limitations in the present accounting system, accounting in the present-day world has generally been accepted as a recognized profession. Efforts are on throughout the world to overcome these limitations. Economic activities of any society without accounting are neither possible nor legal.


Overall Performance:

Financial accounting discloses and reports profitability or otherwise of the business as a whole. Since it does not classify accounts on the basis of departments or segments, products, processes and sales territories, it fails to provide information about costs and profit of these sub-divisions of the organisation.

No Objective Classification:

In financial accounting, accounts are classified under two major groups, viz., and personal and impersonal. Such a primary classification made subjectively, is of little use to management to ascertain costs by products, jobs and processes.

Building Trust With House Cleaning Clients

Why Every Homeowner Needs Residential Cleaning Services – What to Know

There’s no doubt that you have the capacity to clean your house by yourself. But sometimes, due to other responsibilities, you may not have the time to render your place spotless. As a homeowner, you would want to come home to a house that is clean, fresh, and free of mess, but that may not be the case if you can’t expend any more time and energy scrubbing every nook and cranny of your space.

If this sounds like you, you may benefit from hiring professional cleaners. That way, the burden is off your shoulders as you’re delegating the task to professionals who are adept at cleaning homes. You won’t have to spend time dusting, washing, or vacuuming—everything is taken care of for you, so you can focus on more important matters

You get to have more free time.

Since you no longer have to spend a huge chunk of your time making sure that every room in your home is spotless, you get to spend more quality time with your friends and family or on your hobbies. The residential cleaning service professionals will get the job done, delivering sparkling surfaces and making sure that even the most hard-to-reach areas in your house are free of dirt and dust. Since you’re handing over the job to experts, you know that your house is in the right hands. You’ll be less stressed about the outcome as they know how to tackle your home in a way that you would appreciate.

You’ll have a cleaner and safer environment.

Hiring professional house cleaners is more than just having someone come over and dust off rooms and arrange your furniture. It’s also about making sure that your home is thoroughly clean inside and out and top to bottom, eliminating the germs and bacteria circulating inside. As a result, you and your family get to breathe cleaner, healthier air.

You get to save money on cleaning supplies.

If you’re in charge of cleaning your home, there are certain things that you need to buy, like cleaning agents and pricey cleaning tools. When you opt for recurring house cleaning services, you no longer have to keep buying these materials as the cleaners are already equipped with everything they need to make your house spotless.


House Cleaning Tips to Help You Prevent the Spread of COVID-19 – Our Guide

With growing national concern about the COVID-19 pandemic, homeowners are trying to find more ways to keep their homes safe and free from the virus. While there is no vaccine currently available or any way to permanently make your home impervious to the disease, you can slow its spread by following the advice of experts

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention maintains that, aside from social distancing measures, hygiene helps in preventing the spread of the coronavirus. Frequent and proper handwashing, refraining from touching the eyes, nose, and mouth, and boosting the immune system are all ways to help your body combat the virus.

Beyond your own personal cleanliness, you must also regularly disinfect your home. Some homes have a set cleaning schedule, and for these homes, they may just incorporate preventive steps into the routines that are already established. For homes with no set schedules, this article discusses some things you should know about when cleaning and disinfecting your house against COVID-19.

Note the difference between cleaning and disinfecting

Cleaning is not the same as disinfecting. When you clean a surface, you are merely removing visible dirt, grease, or grime from it. This can be achieved just by wiping a surface with a dry rag. For stubborn stains, you may need to use a wet cloth or soap. Meanwhile, disinfecting is the use of stronger cleaning materials such as aerosols and bleach. The goal of disinfecting is not just to keep a space visibly spotless; it is also for eradicating harmful microorganisms

Start a daily house cleaning schedule

Every day, you should set aside a few minutes to an hour for cleaning. If you have responsibilities, like working from home or needing to leave the house as an essential worker, you can ask your other household members to take this task on. Cleaning your home every day is a necessity, especially during a pandemic.


Hiring a house cleaner for the first time? Your etiquette questions, answered

a room-by-room guide for spring cleaning your apartment top to bottom, but if that seems too daunting—or if you’d rather just throw money at the problem—there are countless services for hire that’ll happily come in and do your dirty work. However, if you’ve never turned to a cleaning service before, the process can be fraught with etiquette issues.

Should I tip my house cleaner, and how much?

who adds that it’s more common practice if you’re hiring an individual cleaner. “Keep in mind that it’s always your decision,” he says.

Should I pre-clean or do any prep work before your house cleaner arrives?

There’s a reason the phrase “cleaning up for the maid” exists: Depending on what kind of cleaning you want done (and how much time you’re willing to pay for), it can be helpful to clear up clutter ahead of time so a cleaning service can focus on a thorough sweep. “Try to corral that first layer of clutter, otherwise it will take your cleaners twice as long,”

What should I look for in a cleaning service?

Naturally, you’re going to want a trustworthy company with a proven track record. And while online reviews are a solid place to start if you want a sense of the company’s history, this is one industry where word of mouth is still king. “Turn to your friends on social media,”

Can I be home while someone cleans my apartment? What about my pets?

This varies from company to company, so again, read the fine print before you book. “Some services require clients to be there the entire time, some not,”



A well-designed housekeeping plan serves more than one function. It not only keeps collections clean and dust-free, but also allows staff time to regularly monitor the state of the collection. Housekeeping can also serve as a low-budget way to support other collections care activities, such as pest management.


Housekeeping tasks will vary depending upon the size, use, and type of collection; a historic house has different needs than a contemporary art museum. A regular schedule of daily, weekly, monthly, and semi-annual to annual tasks ensures that the entire collection receives attention and care. It is just as important to make sure that a collection is not over-cleaned as it is to make sure that it is cleaned, which is why a housekeeping log is an important part of a collections maintenance program.

The Housekeeping Log

A housekeeping log is a great way to keep track of what has been done and what has yet to be done, and any changes in the status of a collection can be recorded. The log should be updated upon completion of any housekeeping tasks. If the collection also has a pest log, the two can support one another. Although the format can vary, a housekeeping log should include the following: task, date, notes, and staff member name.


Magnetic dusting cloths—for example, Dust Bunny Cloths—are chemical-free and use electrostatic charge to attract dust. Do not use feather dusters or cloths impregnated with chemicals or cleansers, as these can potentially leave a damaging residue behind. 100% cotton, chemical-free rags (clean diaper cloths) may also be used.

Soft, natural hair artist brushes, for dusting small or fragile areas (note: brushes used for dusting collections should only be used for this purpose)

Cheesecloth or muslin for use as a filter to vacuum very fragile or flaking items (should be washed prior to use)

Vacuum for collections care

Gentle disinfectant, such as Lysol

Dust mops

Dust masks

Nitrile gloves

Distilled water

Ammonia (note: should not be used near metals or on unstable glass)

Isopropyl Alcohol

Orvus cleaning solution

Murphy’s Oil soap (for mopping floors)

Renaissance Wax or Butcher’s Wax


The following are general guidelines. For very delicate or fragile objects, always consult a conservator before proceeding with any cleaning regimen.


Bindings and text block edges can be cleaned with a cloth or vacuum. If the spine or boards of a book are loose or detached, avoid any cleaning procedures until they have been stabilized. If the binding is in stable condition and the text block is only lightly soiled, magnetic cloths are appropriate. If a book is very dusty or dirty (or if a book has deckled edges), it is preferable to use a vacuum to avoid pushing dirt into paper fibers or damaging delicate edges. Use a soft natural brush or brush attachment on the vacuum, and a micro-tool attachment meant for small areas. Low suction is preferable.


Step-by-step exterior house cleaning guide

Get your outside areas in tip top shape. Experts share their step-by-step tips for tidying up your decking, pavers, brickwork and guttering.

Spring has arrived and now is the perfect time to roll up your sleeves and take on those irksome house cleaning jobs that you’ve been ignoring for months. Now that the weather is warming up, it’s safe to venture outside and get stuck in to outside areas.

some tips for cleaning a timber deck:

Sweep away dust, cobwebs and leaves

With a softwood deck, scrub surface with a hard-bristled brush and a mild detergent solution to remove embedded dirt, grease and grime. If your deck is made from hardwood (iron bark, merbau or blackbutt) it’s safe to wash with a high-pressure cleaner.

Rinse with water.

Once the deck is dry, apply two or three coats of your preferred timber coating. If decking is peeling, flaking or mouldy, you’ll need to strip it back and sand the surface before recoating.

For stubborn stains, apply an oxalic acid-based cleaner such as Sikkens Cetol BL Deck and Wood Cleaner; leave for 15 minutes and wash away.

For an even finish, apply timber coating with a soft, pure-bristle brush, such as a Sikkens Ezee Deck Brush.

national landscape buyer, Bunnings, shares his tips on how to tidy up pavers.

Be careful not to remove the jointing sand from new pavers. Don’t use vacuum sweepers or water for three months after installation.

Spread a coarse sand over pavers.

Dampen sand with a hose.

With a stiff-bristled broom, sweep sand over pavers and repeat. Hose off excess sand.

For tough stains, clean with a chemical or acid wash (check your manufacturer’s instructions first) and a stiff brush or high-pressure cleaner.

For quick, effective cleaning, try Kärcher’s K3.190 T250 1.6W High Pressure Cleaner and Diggers Rust & Stain Cleaner, both from Bunnings.

his advice on tidying up brickwork.

Use a cobweb brush to remove cobwebs and loose dirt.

Fill the tank of a pressure washer with exterior house-washing detergent. Set the washer head to ‘spray’ so the detergent mixes with the water. Then, set washer head to ‘fan’ and clean brickwork, running the water evenly across the surface.

For stubborn stains, change to the ‘roto’ nozzle setting and focus the pressure cleaner on the stain.

To finish, use a fixed or rotary brush and concentrated detergent to scrub away any stubborn marks by hand.

Must-have equipment includes AR Blue Clean Exterior House Wash and AR Blue Clean Pressure Washer Rotary Brush

The Survival Of The Family Dentist Practice

What questions should I ask a new dentist?

Trying to find the perfect new dentist doesn’t have to be challenging or time-consuming if you know what you’re looking for in the first place. Start out by writing down any of your concerns or conditions, as well as questions.

Questions will vary from person to person. Maybe you’re moving somewhere completely new and have no idea where to start. Perhaps you don’t like your dentist and want to switch. Or maybe your current dentist is closing their practice and you need to go somewhere else.

Regular dental visits are extremely important for maintaining healthy teeth and a perfect smile. Finding a dental practice and a dentist that’s right for you isn’t a very difficult job when you know what you are looking for and are aware of the questions you should ask your dentist. Good communication is the key to a healthy relationship. Your connection with your dentist depends on how effectively you communicate with them.

Discussing your health concerns, dental habits, fears, and apprehensions with your dentist makes a big difference. After all, this is the person who will look inside your mouth every 6 months. Hence, you must be comfortable with your dentist, especially when asking questions! Here are some questions that you must ask when going to a new dentist.


How Can We Improve My Dental Health?

Dental health can be improved when you and your dentists work together towards the same goal. Share your routine with your new dentist and get the necessary guidelines about brushing and flossing. You can ask about what kind of toothbrush you should use and how often should you replace it. Ask your dentist to demonstrate the right way to brush and floss. Your dentist will guide you about the frequency of your dental visits. You can discuss the oral hygiene products that you are using or wish to use. Your dentist will give suggestions about your fluoride intake, night guards, and bad breath. Be sure to inform your dentist about any pain, discomfort, or anything out of the ordinary that you’re experiencing.

How Is My Current Dental Health?

A new dentist will most probably examine your entire oral cavity, including teeth, gums, jaws, tongue, and throat. You’ll be checked for lesions, wounds, bumps, cavities, plaque, tartar, or signs of teeth grinding. They’ll assess your overall dental health and will be able to give you a proper analysis. Once this is done, they’ll discuss your treatment options and preferences. This is a good time to ask your dentist any questions about your current oral health, and any ways you can improve your oral health.

What Ways Can I Optimize My Dental Health Through Diet and Hygiene?

Your diet and oral hygiene impact your oral health in many ways. Ask your Dentist about ways you can adjust your daily routine to support any dental treatments or needs you may have. What foods may impact your teeth for better or worse? What daily habits will support your goals? Your Dentist may be able to advise specific changes that will help to support what they are doing to treat or maintain your oral health.


What is Causing the Pain in My Teeth?

Oral pain and discomfort can be caused by a range of different factors, from broken or cracked teeth to tooth sensitivity. If there is a problem, it can be detected easily during your routine exam with the help of your bi-annual x-rays in most cases. However, you should always tell your dentist exactly where you feel the pain because it’s not always apparent from an exam or x-ray. Because of this, ask your dentist about any discomfort or pain you’re experiencing so that they can check it out.

Should I Consider Teeth Whitening Treatments?

Whitening treatments are a great way to improve the appearance of your teeth and reverse years worth of stains. Dental offices have different types of whitening treatments and asking your dentist about the available options will help you determine which is right for you. For example, most dentists offer in-office whitening treatments that take about an hour.

What Procedures Can Improve the Strength of My Teeth?

Fluoride treatments and some dental procedures can help improve the strength and resiliency of your smile. Your dentist will offer a range of these treatments, and you can receive recommendations according to what you’re hoping to achieve. Fluoride treatments are most often done for smaller children, but many adults benefit from them if they have weak teeth that are more susceptible to cavities. You may also benefit from some types of cosmetic dentistry, such as dental crowns, bridges, or implants to improve the strength and appearance of your teeth, depending on the extent of the dental damage.


Do I have any dental health conditions I should know about?

This question will start a conversation about the current health of your smile, providing insight into how you can improve it.

What are your payment and financial policies?

It’s always important to understand the financial policies of your dental practice, so ask this question before starting treatment.

What is your continuing education policy?

The science and practice of dentistry is constantly changing, and your dentist should be attending continuing education to keep up with the latest. Don’t be afraid to ask how they stay current with new treatments and technologies.


Why Are My Teeth So Sensitive?

If you have sensitivity issues, it’s important to ask your dentist about the causes and what you can do to control the sensitivity. Tooth sensitivity can be caused by a myriad of issues, such as orthodontic work, whitening treatments, certain medications, cracks in your teeth, or dental decay. If your dentist can discover the cause of your sensitivity, it may help to diagnose other issues or prevent it from getting worse.

Should I Be Concerned About Gingivitis and Gum Disease?

Your dentist can give you product recommendations as well as oral hygiene techniques that should be utilized at home to prevent gingivitis and other forms of periodontal disease. When gingivitis is left uncontrolled, it can become worse and affect the overall integrity of your oral health. Gum disease can cause swelling, pain, bleeding, bad breath, loose teeth, and even result in your gums receding. Ask your dentist for the best tips on how to lower your risk for gum disease.

At What Age Should My Child See a Dentist?

Now is a great time to get answers to questions about your family’s oral health as well. If you have recently had a baby, you may be wondering when they should go in for a visit. Most babies should see a dentist when their first tooth erupts, but many dental professionals will recommend them going to see a pediatric dentist when they are between one and two years old.

Tips To Consider When Searching For A Move Out Cleaning Company

How to Make Sure Your Rental Passes Inspection After Moving Out

If you live in a rental apartment or house and are in the middle of moving out, it’s time to start thinking about cleaning. Most landlords require a move-in deposit that covers any damage or dirt left behind once you move out. Instead of giving up your deposit, you can almost guarantee a passed inspection with fool-proof cleaning tips. A few extra hours of deep cleaning can save you a precious few hundred bucks

Follow a Cleaning Checklist

It’s easy to get overwhelmed with the amount of cleaning tasks in front of you. Instead of keeping your mental to-do list in your head, write it out. Or better yet, find a cleaning checklist online. Print it out and physically check off each item as you complete them.

A good rule of thumb is to complete the following cleaning tasks after the basics are covered:

patch nail holes with spackle and repaint

wipe baseboards with soapy warm water and a washcloth

scour the bathtub, but don’t use steel wool (it scratches the shiny porcelain layer off)

rent a carpet cleaner and deep clean all carpets twice

wash windows inside and out

dust off obscure areas (tops of ceiling fans, air vents, and ceiling corners)

Especially if you rented a house, it’s important to spend time fixing up your outside area. If you moved in to a pristine yard and pleasant curb appeal, your landlord will expect the same appearance when you move out.

Spend Time in the Kitchen and Bathrooms

Real estate agents always say that kitchens and bathrooms sell houses. It’s true that these two rooms are the most distinct rooms in your home. Because of their unique functions, they’re also the easiest to get dirty. Spend extra time making sure they look spotless.


End of Tenancy Cleaning Service Guide

You are hoping to retrieve your hefty deposit when you move out. If, however, you do not properly clean the property at the end of your tenancy, there could a nasty surprise in the form of a reduced (or non-existent) deposit return.

Use this cleaning service guide to ensure that you do not miss a thing. After all, you wouldn’t want to lose a chunk of your deposit because you forgot to clean the living room blinds, would you?

Remove all personal items

To start off, you need to ensure that all of your personal items are removed, or at least packed away. This obviously needs to be done in order to move out at the end of the tenancy, but doing so before cleaning allows you to reach everywhere that you need to during the process.

Now you must remove any extra nails or screws from the interior walls, and to fill the resulting holes with putty or spackle. Remember to remove any excess, leaving a smooth surface behind.

Clean window coverings

Most blinds and curtains are able to be cleaned simply through vacuuming. If they are musty (for example, with tobacco smoke), take them down and air them for as long as possible. Alternatively, use a fabric spray such as Febreze to remove the odors.


Tenants to have a smooth moving experience

An inspection will be done only after all your personal property has been removed and you have cleaned the property. At that time, you need to take the keys to the office. We consider you still living at the property until the keys are turned in. Rent will be charged until RPM receives the keys and the garage door remote – do NOT leave keys at the property. YOU WILL NOT BE ABLE TO RE-ENTER THE PROPERTY AFTER ALL KEYS HAVE BEEN TURNED INTO THE OFFICE.

The better the condition of the property when you leave, the faster the deposit can be sent out. You will need to give us your forwarding address to send your deposit refund to. If you vacate the property prior to the end of the lease term, you will still be responsible for the rent during the remaining term of the lease. However, we will do our best to try and lease the property.


Remove all trash and personal items from your home and yard.

Clean all appliances thoroughly, including microwave, range hood, etc. Clean sinks, cabinets and drawers.

The carpeting must be professionally cleaned and receipt turned in with the keys.

Wash non-carpeted floors. Remove the stains and marks.

Wash walls carefully; pay special attention to the areas around light switches, hallways, doors and baseboards.

Clean all windows. Secure all screens and remove cobwebs inside and out.

Make the needed repairs to the screens and the screen doors.

Clean and disinfect the bathrooms thoroughly.

Repair or have any damage you or your pets have caused repaired.

Discontinue your phone services at least 24 hours before vacating.

If you are responsible for the lawn care: Mow, trim and remove debris from the yard.

Make arrangements to have your trash picked up before you discontinue service.

Do not place the trash and the garbage in the recyclable cans. A fine may be applied.

Tenant is responsible for the following:

Yard care (if not mentioned in the lease), Minor trimming, pruning & weeding beds

Testing and changing batteries in smoke detectors and/or carbon monoxide detectors

Changing all inoperable light bulbs and fluorescent tubes in easily accessible light fixtures

Keep dryer vents & house vents clean inside & out

Pest control (for details, please call the office)

Inside & outside window cleaning

Tenant is responsible for all maintenance of water softener and water purification systems (if applicable).

Drain stoppage (clogging) when caused by tenant.  Do not put potato peelings, onion skins, or artichoke trimmings through the disposal.  Any other food placed in the disposal should have water run through the drain for at least 10 seconds after grinding.  This carries the food out to the main sewer.

Payment of rent or other charges as determined by lease and addendum.

Do not use the drop-in cleaners in the tank of the toilet.  This will destroy the rubber in the fittings.  The type that clip to the bowl edge are best.

No foreign items are to be flushed away.  This includes: baby wipes, tampons, diapers, paper towels, dental floss, clumping kitty litter, etc.  These items will clog the drain and you will be charged for the repairs.




If you paid for Prepaid Cleaning when you moved in, a base interior cleaning will be completed when you move out (floors and carpets included). If you do not return the home in the same condition you received it, you will be charged additional costs. The following is an example of items that would result in a charge against your security deposit. Please contact your property manager if you have a question about a specific item.

Dirty window coverings

Garbage and debris left behind

Stains on the flooring

Pet damage

Smoke damage


Return all keys and remotes to our office no later than the end of the day you vacate. If you’re returning after business hours, please leave any remotes on the kitchen counter, and use our drop box to return keys in an envelope with your name, address, unit, phont number, and forwarding address. Failure to return these items may result in a deduction to your security deposit. We will not consider the property vacant until we receive the keys.

Please have all personal items removed, and cleaning completed, by the time you return your keys/remotes. Additional access to the property will not be available.

After you vacate the property, the Property Manager will conduct a Move-Out Inspection. You will receive full documentation of the condition of the unit, with applicable photos, and a full accounting of the charges. You do not need to be present during your move-out inspection.

Please make sure we have your forwarding address on file so you can receive your Move-Out Inspection as quickly as possible.


When contacting utilities, please be sure to keep services in your name through the last day of proper notice and to have your name removed (and name added) as of that date, but do not shut off service.

Do not pay your closing water bill (and sometimes your trash bill, depending on where you live). will prorate the charges and, when available, use your security deposit to pay these closing bills. This assures there will not be a lien placed against the property for non-payment.

If it is the cold season, please leave the heat set at 60 degrees, and leave the cupboard doors open under the sinks so that pipes don’t freeze. You could potentially be responsible for damages if you do not take these steps.



It would seem that cleaning out your apartment when you’re moving to a new home would be a bit easier than if you were cleaning out a house. However, there are a few details that you want to pay attention to when you’re cleaning so that everything is in order for you to leave the unit as it was when you moved to the residence

Follow the landlord’s moving out cleaning list

When you moved into the apartment, the landlord probably gave you a list of the things to clean if you planned to move out. You can use this list to go around your apartment to make sure everything is checked off. If you abide by the regulations that are stated in your lease and you leave the apartment as it was when you moved in with little wear and tear, then you’ll usually get your security deposit back if you paid one.

Make sure to repair what needs to be repaired

If there are any holes in the walls from hanging pictures, posters, or decorations, then you need to cover them so that they can’t be seen. You should also fix or replace blinds that are broken and paint that is chipped. After you move everything from the rooms in your apartment, you need to do a thorough cleaning so that it’s like it was the first day you unpacked. It’s easier to start at the ceiling and work your way down to the floor.

Declutter and toss out things you don’t need

When you’re packing your belongings, you should get rid of the things that are broken or that you don’t use so that you don’t take any unnecessary boxes with you to your new home. Don’t forget to clean out the refrigerator and freezer. Make sure there is nothing left in the washing machine and dryer or the dishwasher. Wash the walls so that any streaks or smudges are removed. Consider getting the carpet professionally cleaned so that it’s in the best possible condition before you move out.

Mosquitoes Exterminator

Your Guide to Home Mosquito

a comprehensive mosquito control guide all about mosquitoes; what they are, how they feed, why they bite and most importantly, how to get rid of them.

Mosquito Anatomy

Mosquitoes are relatively small insects, measuring an average of just more than 6 mm long and weighing about 2.5 milligrams. They’re divided into three basic parts: the head, thorax and abdomen.


The head is crammed with sensory equipment that help the mosquitoes find and feed on people and animals.

Compound eyes

They have two large compound eyes covered with tiny lenses called ommatidia that are capable of detecting even slight movement. On the top of their heads, they also have ocelli, simple photosensitive eyes detect variations in light.


Their antennae, long feathery organs, jut forward from their heads and contain sensitive receptors that detect carbon dioxide in human breath from distances of more than 100 feet. The maxillary palp between the antennae pick up the odor of ocentol and other chemicals released in human sweat.


Right in the middle, also between the antennae, is the proboscis, a long serrated mouthpart used to pierce the skin and suck out blood. The proboscis holds two tubes, one that injects saliva containing an anti-coagulant and mild painkiller, and a second that actually draws the blood.


The thorax, or what you might think of as the torso, is connected to the head. A pair of wings and a pair of halteres, small wing-like organs used for steering, sprout from the thorax. The legs also come out of the thorax, six in all, with tiny claws at the end of each to help the mosquitoes stay attached to surfaces.


The abdomen hangs from the thorax and serves as the mosquitoes’ stomach and lungs.


Small openings called spiracles line both sides of the abdomen, allowing the mosquitoes to draw in air. The abdomen holds the blood that female mosquitoes take in, and a nerve in the abdomen signals when it is full. A female’s eggs are also stored in the abdomen.


Mosquito Life Cycle


Female mosquitoes lay eggs about every third day during their lifespan, usually in clumps of 100 to 300 eggs. The eggs are deposited either as “rafts” floating on the surface of standing water or on the ground in areas that regularly flood. Mosquitoes can lay eggs in as little as one inch of water. The eggs, generally white when laid, cannot hatch unless they are in water, usually for two to three days.


When the eggs hatch, the larvae emerge. They are called “wigglers” because that’s how they swim. Most of the time, they hang from the surface of the water, breathing through tubes. The wigglers feed on organic matter in the water, shed their skins four times over about a week, and develop into pupae. Larvae are the easiest to kill, using oils that block their breathing or bacteria that poison them.


The pupae are called “tumblers” for the way the fall into the deepest part of the water when threatened by predators. They are shaped like commas, partially encased in cocoons, with the head at one end and tiny flippers at the other. The pupae do not feed while developing, but breathe through tubes like the larvae. It takes about four days for the the adult mosquito to emerge.


The newly emerged adults climb out of the water to rest and wait for their bodies to dry out. The males will take a day or two to fully develop their reproductive organs, then seek out a female, by the sound of her wingbeats, for mating. They’ll live about three to five days after that, feeding on fruit and plant nectar. The females mate once, but continue laying eggs after every blood meal. Under the best conditions, they can live up to a month or two.


How to Get Rid of Mosquitoes in Your Backyard: A Step-By-Step Guide

From the inside of your house, it looks like a beautiful night. The stars are out, the lightning bugs are dancing, and you want nothing more than to go outside to enjoy it. But when you do, what happens? You’re met with a swarm of mosquitos. Backyard mosquitoes can prevent you from enjoying outside time. So what can you do to stop them from being a problem? Keep reading for a guide on how to get rid of mosquitoes.

Before learning about how to get rid of them, you should understand some facts about mosquitoes. Although all mosquitoes seem similar and awful, there are around 3,000 different types. In the US, there are around 200 species.

Many people believe that mosquitoes are parasites that suck blood for food. However, the reason they suck blood is to ensure that their bodies have enough nourishment to lay eggs. Mosquitoes lay a large number of eggs at once. In some instances, they can lay over 100. This means that it’s easy for mosquito populations to get out of hand if you don’t control them.

Consider Where They’re Coming From

When you’re looking into cutting down on mosquito populations, consider where they can be coming from. Understand that mosquitoes need standing water to breed. If you have open containers of water at your home, look into repairing leaks or removing them. You can also dump the containers, which will kill the mosquito larvae before they can mature.

Repel Them

If you don’t want to use harsh chemicals and treatments, you can look into more natural ways to keep mosquitoes away. If you’re outside for an evening, there are some other repellents you can use. Burning certain kinds of candles, such as citronella, will help keep them away. You can also use essential oils with lavender, eucalyptus, or lemon. Mosquitoes don’t like these smells and will steer clear of where they originate from.


Home Mosquito Control

Mosquitoes can breed in as little as one inch of standing water, which means there are numerous places around a home that might support them. It is important to get rid of those possible breeding sites to avoid a yard full of biting insects.

Remove empty containers

Start by cleaning up any containers left lying around the yard. Put away buckets, pick up toys, and dump any pet dishes kept outside. If the dog must have a dish in the backyard, made sure the water is changed daily. Other containers might need to stay outside, as well. Punch holes in them so water drains.

Cut the grass and trim the bushes

During the day, mosquitoes like to rest in tall grass or among shrubs in a moist, shady spot. Keeping the grass short deprives them of a resting place. Also, rake up any fallen leaves. An overturned leaf can hold enough water for a mosquito’s eggs, and also give them a place to wait out the day.

Check the rain gutters

They will often become plugged by leaves, blown branches, or other debris, and water will accumulate instead of draining out. Clean them out regularly, especially during the summer. If water is left standing in the gutters more than a week, mosquitoes will lay eggs in them.

Fill in any low-lying areas in the yard

These depressions can hold water after a rain or when the lawn is watered. Without proper drainage, the water will stay for days, allowing mosquitoes a chance to breed. Add dirt and sod, or install a drainage system.

Look after your pool

Keep the water in the pool clean and chlorinated. Drain and cover it when it’s not in use, and the same goes for wading or collapsible pools. Make sure any decorative items, such as birdbaths or ponds, get fresh water at least once a week. Stock the pond with fish that will eat mosquito larvae.


How To Get Rid Of Mosquitoes Naturally

Remove Stagnant water sources

Mosquitoes lay eggs in water, hence its important to change the water in flower pots, pet dishes, bird baths etc on regular basis. Make sure potted plants (indoors/outdoors) never have standing water in trays. Most mosquitoes eggs hatch within 48 hours and it takes only 8-10 days for eggs to turn into adults. It doesn’t take too long.

Throw out all the junk from your yard

If your yard has any items you don’t need, chuck them out. Old tires or any other yard debris hiding at some corner in your yard can retain moisture and provide a breeding area to mosquitoes.

Cleaner surroundings

Keep your gutters cleaned out, fill in unnecessary ditches, mow the lawn, basically tidy surrounding, giving no place for mosquitoes to breed.

Use of anti mosquito herbs

Citronella is the most common ingredient in most mosquito repellents. It’s a beautiful perennial grass that emits a strong aroma which masks other scents keeping mosquitoes away from things located around this plant.

Placing garlic and lavender plants around the home is considered a useful deterrent for mosquitoes.

Lemon balm, basil, Marigold, catnip, rosemary & peppermint are some plants which can make your house smell wonderful as well as keep mosquitoes away.

Use of Oils

Tea light candles made with citronella oil are popular for this purpose. Lavender oil can also be applied to outdoor seating areas or windowsills.

Coconut oil combined with neem oil repels mosquitoes from humans upto 12 hours. It is also an excellent moisturizer for the kin.

Peppermint oil & lemon eucalyptus oil are also useful anti mosquito solutions when applied to the skin.